Nederland Through the Ages
Explorers and traders trap and trade in the area, mingle peacefully with the Ute Indians of the area.
Prospectors separate from their group heading through Wyoming on their way to California to search for gold on the Front Range. The prospectors set up their own town site, Boulder City, and trek up Boulder Canyon (then spelled "Canon") to look for gold.
Prospectors find gold in Gold Run creek. The camp becomes Gold Hill. Gold Hill becomes known as Mountain District #1, Nebraska Territory, and is the first governing body in what would become Colorado.
The town of Nederland begins as a "nondescript huddle of cabins," then called Dayton. Dayton later becomes known as Brown's Crossing.
The trail between Ward and Black Hawk is improved and named the Niwot and Black Hawk Wagon road, which traveled between the two destinations.
Word has spread, and by the mid 1860s, 200 people are living in Gold Hill.
Silver is found at Hill's Ranch (Caribou mine) and in Poor Man mine five miles west of Nederland (Brown's Crossing).
The Silver Rush begins, and stagecoaches bring in an estimated 1,000 people per day by September of that year.
Brown's Crossing's name is changed to Middle Boulder, after the stream running through the town. It connects the gold mines of Ward with the mills and smelter at Black Hawk.
Discovery of gold, combined with the new discovery of tellurium at Caribou, launches a second gold rush. This starts the Telluride Boom.
Investors from Holland buy the Caribou Mill and change the name of Brown's Crossing to Nederland, which means "lowland," being lower ground than at Caribou. The Dutch company went bankrupt in 1878, but the name remained.
The first of three destructive fires roar into Caribou, leveling 40 to 60 homes and mine buildings. The center of the town is saved, and there is no loss of life.
1870 - 1880
Ongoing scarlet fever and diphtheria epidemics, combined with the fires of the late 1870s, discourages many miners, who then leave the area.
Gold is found near the now town of Eldora. Happy Valley mining camp is established and resurgence in gold mining takes place. With declining silver prices, Caribou's population declines, leaving a population of only 100 people.
The Greely, Salt Lake & Pacific railroad is built to serve the Boulder County gold mining towns. It extends up Four Mile Canyon from Boulder to what is now Sunset. In 1898, it is extended to Ward under the new management of the Colorado and Northwestern, with a second branch winding south to Nederland in 1905.
Happy Valley is renamed Eldorado. After the postmistress finds mail being routed to Eldorado, California, one too many times. The town is shortened to Eldora. In the late 1800s, tourism and real estate begin to surge.
Caribou suffers its second major fire, which destroys many of the towns premiere buildings. A third fire in 1905 again decreases the number of buildings and people living there. Opened until March 1917, the Caribou Post Office was one of the town's last buildings standing.
For years, prospectors in the Nederland area cursed "the damned black iron" which was dark ore found throughout the area. Later finding it to be rich in tungsten, the Wolf Tongue Mining Company is formed to mine tungsten from the mines in Nederland.
The Barker Dam is built by the Colorado Power Company in order to haul in heavy equipment.
The tungsten boom in Nederland reaches its peak. Twenty-two mills process the tungsten from the mines, all of which are said to be making a profit.
Not long after, the town is crippled by a flu epidemic and tungsten mining and milling production is practically at a standstill, the boom collapses as the wartime demand for tungsten diminishes.
As mining decreases as the key industry of the area, tourism takes over as the largest revenue generator.